爬梳人生,社企之路將對你顯現

by 張瓊齡

香港的社會企業年度盛事—社會企業民間高峰會系列活動,即將在今年的11月5日、前所未有加開一個大師班,共邀請到三位來自歐美的社企大師。

Scott Sherman. Photo from startingbloc.org
Scott Sherman. Photo from startingbloc.org

其中一位講師史葛(Scott Sherman),是美國一家創新教育機構 Transformative Action Institute (TAI)的創辦人,主要提供社會創業(social entrepreneurship)課程,他同時也在多所著名大學任教社企課程(註一)。

他的課程深受歡迎,與其中一項作業有莫大關係。選課生都必需完成一個習作:Story of Your Life–a Personal Portfolio,透過圖文並茂的方式來介紹自己的一生。

史葛設計了21道問題,引導學生反思成長過程,檢視目前的處境,展望未來的可能性,他們因此察覺到社會創業與自己的切身關係。經過這樣的梳理,社會議題、社會創新、改變社會等不再是抽象的觀念,而是與自己的生活、事業、理想、未來等產生直接的關連。

儘管這項作業主要是針對20歲上下的大學生所設計,但相信對於想要在人生下半場展開社企之路的熟齡者也有所助益,以下就是史葛的21道問題及中文重點翻譯。

Story of Your Life 你的生命故事

YOUR PAST – THE PATH THAT LED YOU HERE
爬梳過往:為什麼你會是現在這個樣子

1. What is the historical context of your birth? In other words, what was the world like in which you grew up?
聊聊你成長背景的歷史脈絡。換句話說,你是在怎樣的世界裡長大的?

2. What was the community in which you were born, and grew up? How has this community influenced who you are?
你在怎樣的社區出生及長大?這樣的社區如何影響你成為現在的模樣呢?

3. Were there people who were particularly strong influences on your life and your way of thinking? Who are the greatest heroes, mentors, and inspirations in your life? These could be people who are living or dead, famous or obscure, people you have known, or people you have only read about in history books. How and why have they touched you so deeply?
有哪些人對你的思路與人生產生特別重大的影響?誰是你的偶像、精神導師或是激勵你的人?
這樣的人可以是在世或已過世,名人或無名小卒,你認識他本人或只是從書本中讀過?
為什麼以及他們如何深深觸動了你?

4. What adversities have you or members of your family overcome in your lives? Tell stories of how have you/they managed to triumph over such troubles.
你本身或者家族成員是否遭遇並克服過逆境?說說你或者他們是怎麼熬過來的?

5. What is your experience with giving back to others in your community? Have you ever been involved in any campaigns to make a difference in the world? It’s fine if the answer is no. Just explain why you haven’t felt a need to get involved. If the answer is yes, talk about your own experiences. Go into depth; this is like your autobiography of civic engagement.
你是否有回饋社區的經驗?你曾經參與過任何與改變世界相關的活動嗎?如果沒有也無妨。
只要說說為何你沒覺得有參與的必要?
如果你有相關經驗的話,請說說你自身的經驗。盡量說得深入一些,這就像是你個人公共參與的自傳。

6a. What have been your favorite creative inspirations throughout your life? What are the books, movies, art works, songs, or other hobbies and creative activities that you have most enjoyed? Why and how have these things uplifted and influenced you?
你喜歡從那裡獲得激勵和創意?最享受那些書本、電影、藝術工作、歌曲,或是其他啫好與創造性活動?這些事物如何提升並影響你?

6b. What are the most creative things that you have done in your life? Please feel free to include creative examples. If you love creating art, writing poetry, or taking photographs, then include an original work. If you love singing, record a CD. If you have a story of an amazing time of joy that came out of hard work when you struggled to achieve something great, then tell that story. Have fun with this!
你這輩子至今做過最有創意的事情是什麼?請不要客氣,盡量自在地完整地描述你的創意案例。
如果你喜歡藝術創作,寫詩,攝影,請附上你的原創作品。若你熱愛歌唱,就錄一片CD。如果你曾經克服萬難完成一件壯舉,那就說說這個故事。開心地做這些回顧。

7a. Tell the narrative of your life so far, highlighting the major turning points and most important experiences. Tell the stories of the events that have profoundly changed your life and shaped you as a person. Be sure to include the greatest experiences of your life, too. What are your finest moments and the accomplishments of which you are most proud? What have been your peak experiences?
說說你人生至今主要的幾個轉捩點,以及最重要的一些經驗。說說那些深深改變你生命的事件,以及這些事件如何形塑了你這個人。
當然也要講講你生命中的重大經歷,哪些時刻是你感到最美好、最有成就,甚至讓你引以為傲的?什麼是你的高峰經驗呢?

7b. Play the game of two truths and a lie. Make three outrageous or unusual statements about your life. Two of them must be true; only one will be false. (At the end of this portfolio, please include an appendix where you reveal which one is the lie, and where you tell the true stories!)
現在來玩一個小遊戲,講兩個實話和說一個謊。請你敘述三件跟你的人生有關事情,要用比較離譜誇張或是你通常不會使用的說法。這裡頭必須有兩件是真實的,一件是假的(在這份資料的最後,請用附錄的方式告訴大家哪一個是假的、哪兩個才是真實的故事)。

7c. When have you felt most loved, valued, respected, and cherished? Write about one of the times when friends or family members have made you feel most secure and comforted.
你曾感受過被深深地愛著、被尊重、被珍惜著嗎?請舉出任何一個例子,描述你的朋友或家人讓你感到很安全並且得到安慰的時刻。

EXPLORING YOUR PRESENT  探索你的現狀

8. Write about the things that make you happiest. What gives you the greatest sense of fulfillment, personal satisfaction, and self-esteem? When are you so engaged and absorbed in an activity that time seems to stop? What are the times in your life when everything seems to flow, and you are in the peak state of joy? What are the things that you do that give you the greatest returns on happiness, productivity, and contribution?
寫下那些會讓你最快樂的事物。什麼會帶給你最大的成就感,個人的滿足感,以及高度的自尊?那些時候你是如此地投入與被吸引?彷彿時間都凝結住了。
你生命中的那些時候,讓覺得一切都很順遂,自己處在高峰的愉悅經驗中?有哪些事情當你做了之後,會帶給你至樂與狂喜,讓你感到有生產力和貢獻?

9. What are your greatest talents and your signature strengths?
你有哪些才賦?你的強項是什麼?

(In order to get the most accurate assessment, please take the VIA signature strength test online, established by the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania. You can do an Internet search for this webpage, which will offer an academically valid
survey that will identify the areas where you can most make a difference.
為了得到最準確的評估,請上網搜尋,賓州大學的正向心理學中心建立的一項線上測試「突顯優點測驗」(Signature Strength test),可在網路上搜尋後作答。你會得到一份具有學術性的調查結果,可以確認你最能夠做出改變的領域。

This is your chance to take an inventory of your best qualities. Some people may have trouble with this question because they have been taught to be modest and humble; they don’t want to brag or to focus on what makes them special. Nonetheless, it is valuable to recognize the ways that you can contribute to the welfare of others; this will help determine the best direction for your life. How do you stand out from other people? What unique gifts do you have to offer the world?
這是你的機會把你最好的特質列出一份清單,有些人在回答問題的時候會有困擾,因為他們過去被教導要謙卑,他們不想吹捧自己或者聚焦在會讓他們與眾不同之處,然而辨識出你能夠造福他人的那些方式是極具價值的,這將有助於你把自己的人生投注在最好的方向。你如何從人群中脫穎而出?你可以提供給這個世界的獨特禮物,又是什麼?

Once you have determined your strengths, figure out specific ways that you can
incorporate them more into your life. Researchers have discovered that people are much happier when they use their strengths on a daily basis in new and creative ways. People can even transform boring jobs into ones that they enjoy by using their strengths more. How can you use your strengths more often in your day-to-day life?)
一旦確認自己的長才,你可以找出具體方法讓它們更融入你的生活。研究發現,當人可以把自己的優勢以創意的方式在日常生活中實踐,他將會更快樂。當人們可以運用所長,即使原本無聊的工作也可以得到轉換變得有趣。你如何更常讓自己的長才在日復一日的生活中得到應用呢?

10. Engage in the “reflected best-self exercise” – This is getting 360-degree feedback about you at your best. In the traditional 360-degree feedback exercise, friends, family members, co-workers and other people tell you about your strengths and weaknesses. But here we are focusing on your optimal state:
進行「反射性最佳自我評估練習」~這是一個三百六十度的回饋、聚焦在你最棒的部分。在傳統的三百六十度的回饋練習中,由朋友,家庭成員,合夥夥伴,以及其他人告訴你關於你的長處與弱點。不過這裡我們只聚焦在你的最佳狀態。

Ask 10 to 20 people – friends, family members, significant others, co-workers, teachers, supervisors, and other people who know you well — for stories of when they have seen you at your best. You can create a survey through Google docs in order to collect the data.
詢問十到二十個人~ 朋友、家庭成員、重要他人、工作夥伴、師長,以及其他熟知你的人~ 請他們告訴你他們所見過的關於你的最佳狀態的故事。你可以用GOOGLE文件製作一個問卷以便收集資料。

After collecting all of this feedback, write down the recurring themes. What have people repeatedly found to be your gifts and talents and strengths? How does this exercise make you reflect on what you wish to do with your life, and what you have to offer the world?
收集到這些回饋後,將反覆出現的主題寫下來。人們不斷重複看見你的天賦與強項是那些?這項練習如何協助你反思你希望落實在你的人生的是什麼?以及你有什麼可以貢獻給這個世界的?

11. Imagine that a museum were to open up an exhibit about your life. What would be some of the artifacts that they might feature, and how would each one reveal something significant about your personality or your character? Make sure that you have an explanatory panel for each artifact. In other words, include a story to accompany each exhibit – something that illustrates why this is so meaningful.
想像如果有一間博物館要幫你開一個人生回顧展,你認為有哪些文物是務必要陳列的?
每一個陳列品如何呈現出你的人格特質與風格?確認每一件陳列品都要有一個說明牌。
換句話說,每一項物品背後都有一個有意義的故事。

12. What matters most in your life? What are the things that you value more than
anything else in the world? Are you living consistently with these values? Are you
spending most of your time on the things that really matter deeply to you? If not, how can you change your life to reflect what matters most?
什麼是你人生當中最重要的?有哪些事物對你的價值,是高過世上其他一切的?
你正過著與這些價值觀一致的生活嗎?
你把生命當中大部分的時間都投注在你真正看重的事情上嗎?如果不是,你要如何改變現在的生活,以回應最在意的事物?

13. What are the negative beliefs and stories and patterns of thought that stand as
obstacles to reaching your full potential? Can you rebut them and show them to be false?
有哪些負面消極的信念、故事和模式,阻礙了你去開展出全部的潛力?你可以辨識這些障礙並揭穿它們並非真實的嗎?

14. What are you grateful for?
你感謝嗎?感謝些什麼?

YOUR VISION FOR THE FUTURE 你的未來願景

15a. If we gave you $100 million, tax-free, what would you do with your life? (In other words, how would you spend the rest of your life if you were independently wealthy and did not have to worry about money?)
若你有一百萬美金,不用付稅,你會做些甚麼?(換句話說,若你能夠經濟自主、不為金錢所困,你會怎麼過你接下來的歲月?)

15b. If you discovered that you had only two years to live, what would you do in that time? (Imagine that you would be completely healthy over the next two years. What would you want to accomplish before you die?)
若你發現自己只剩兩年可活,你打算做些什麼?(想像未來這兩年你完全健康,你想要在離世之前完成些什麼?)

15c. What have you always wanted to do, but have been afraid to attempt?
有什麼事你一直想做,卻不敢去嘗試的?

15d. What one great thing would you dare to dream if you knew that you could not fail?
如果你確定你不會失敗,你敢於做的最大的夢是什麼?

16. List everything that you wish to achieve and experience in your life. Write down as many goals as you can – at least 100 goals for your life. Dream big! Go wild! Don’t compromise at all: write down all of your dreams and aspirations here, no matter how ambitious or idealistic.
把每一件你想要在這一生完成與經歷的事情寫下來。盡可能寫下最多目標 ~ 至少一百件你的生命目標。
做大夢!放開一點!完全不要妥協,把所有你的夢想與願望都列出來,別提心是否野心太大或者太過理想化。

17. Answer at least one of the following questions about your future:
下面關於你未來的三個問題,請至少挑一個回答。

a. MAGAZINE ARTICLE – 5 TO 10 YEARS IN THE FUTURE – Create a magazine story about you having succeeded. You have made a real difference in the world and in other people’s lives. Your life has been rich and full of meaning and significance. What have you done? How did you get there? Again this is a creative exercise in imagining the future. You could envision yourself as TIME Magazine’s person of the year. Why has this prestigious honor been bestowed upon you? Explain it in detail, as if you were a reporter writing this story for a prestigious magazine.
雜誌文章 ~ 在未來的五到十年。創造一篇雜誌專訪關於你的成功故事。你已經讓這世界以及他人的生活有了真正的改變。你的人生很豐富且充滿意義。你做了些甚麼?你是怎麼辦到的?這是一個關於未來的創意練習,你可以設想自己是時代雜誌的年度人物,為何這個極富盛名的榮耀落會在你身上?說明盡量詳細,假裝你自己是一個報導者,正為一個聲望卓著的雜誌撰寫這篇報導。

b. AUTOBIOGRAPHY FROM 30 YEARS IN THE FUTURE – Write your autobiography from the perspective of 30 years in the future. Imagine that this is the best of all possible worlds, where you have been able to live your ideal life. What have you accomplished? What transpired over your lifetime? This should be a fun, playful exercise where you talk about how you will combine your passions and dreams with your strengths and talents. Be as detailed as possible.
未來三十年的傳記~ 從三十年後的角度寫下你的傳記。想像這已經是所有可能中最好的一個世界了,你也已經度過你的理想人生。你完成了些什麼?你的人生發生過什麼事?這應該是個有趣好玩的練習,你要談的是你怎麼讓自己熱情和夢想與長才結合?務必仔細描述。

c. FUNERAL – END OF LIFE – Imagine that you have passed away. There are many people who have come to your funeral to celebrate your life. If you have lived your ideal life, what will these people be saying about you? How will they describe your contribution and your character? What would you like them to say?
喪禮 ~ 生命的終點。想像你已過世了,有很多人來參加你的喪禮並歡慶你的人生。若你曾經活過了理想的人生,你認為這些人會怎麼說你?你會怎樣描述你自己對世界的貢獻以及人格?你喜歡他們說些什麼?

18. In question 13, you explored the negative stories that you tell about your life – stories that prevent you from reaching your full potential. What are the new stories that you could tell? How could you see yourself as being on “the hero’s journey,” with a life rich in meaning and purpose?
在第十三題曾要你回溯生命中的負面經驗,哪些妨礙你發揮潛能的故事。
現在你會說的是什麼樣的不同的新故事?你如何確定自己正走在充滿豐富意義與目的“英雄之旅”

19. What is your mission statement? In a single sentence or paragraph, try to summarize what you are meant to do with your life.
你如何描述你的天命?用一個句子或一段文字,試著說出你這輩子是為了什麼而來。

20. What are the things that give you a sense of hope? What makes you optimistic about the future? What do you find exciting and promising about this moment in history?
哪些事物讓你感到有希望?哪些讓你對未來感到樂觀?
在這個歷史時刻,讓你覺興奮和充滿希望的什麼

21. Researchers have shown that people who are most happy and satisfied with their lives are those who spend a great deal of their time giving to others and the world. Now that you have completed this portfolio and have hopefully come to some greater clarity on your goals and dreams for your life, what is your vision of how you would like to make a difference in the world? What can you do to get started on it today?
研究指出,對人生感到最快樂與最滿足的人,是那些把許多時間給予他人和以世界為重的人。現在你已經完成了這份個人檔案,也更釐清了你的人生目標和夢想,你想要改變世界的那個願景是什麼?你可以做什麼,讓自己從今天就開始朝實踐這個願景而活呢?

註一:資料來源:Nov5-6 <大師班>-為`香港百仁’上寶貴的一課

TAI 是一家另類教育機構,探索及實驗嶄新的教育及教學方法來改革現行的教育模式,重點放在年輕人身上。史葛也在主流教育機構中示範他的革命性教學方式,他任教過的大學包括史丹福大學、耶魯大學、加州柏克萊大學等。

他的教學廣受學生歡迎,亦獲得多項教學獎項,更難能可貴的是他將整個課程的設計、大綱、內容、教授方法、參考書目、評核方式等,全部公諸於世,讓同行參考、評估及採用。目前在美國及歐洲的大學,至少有五十位教授採用了他的課程設計,將他開創出來的教學方式發揚光大。兩年前開始,更每年舉辦不只一次「教學高峰會(Education Summit),專門討論史葛的課程,參加者都是採用了或即將採用史葛的課程設計的教育工作者,為回應大眾的關注,史葛還特地編寫了一部三百多頁的手冊(Social Innovation Teachers’ Manual),詳盡介紹整個課程的每一環節。

史葛的創新嘗試,帶給教育工作者的啟示有:

  1. 在世界各地,教育問題都是一個令人困擾而焦慮的挑戰。大家都會同意教育必須大肆改革,但阻力卻異常龐大,其中最大阻力就是來自教育機構本身及既得利益者的保守勢力,導致教育改革及教育創新舉步維艱。史葛的策略,一方面成立 Transformative Action Institute,在體制外尋求突破,另一方面,他又在主流教育機構(大學)中示範他的新構思、新方法;後者有助催化大學的變革,同時亦讓他體制外的實驗活動更受關注及重視,互相輝映。
  2. 大學授課本來是很個人的事,不少大學都會有傑出教授。但史葛因為公開自己的教案,令一人的成就化作為多人(甚至無數人)的成就,是一個難得的突破。
  3. 史葛的目標,是尋求最有效的方法,去培育新一代的社會變革者及社會創業者。他相信這方面的工作,大部份要在體制外進行。假以時日,將會出現更多新的教育機構及形式來深化這些工作。

(作者為台北市內湖社區大學「未來想像與創意人才培育計畫」執行長)

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